Sunday, October 14, 2018

Current pharmacologic management strategies in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space the zone between the arachnoid layer and the pia mater encompassing the brain. Symptoms may incorporate a serious rapid headache, diminished level of consciousness, vomiting, fever, and in some cases seizures. Neck solidness or neck pain are also relatively common. In about a fourth of individuals a small bleed with resolving symptoms occurs within a month of a larger bleed.
SAH may happen because of head injury or unexpectedly, as a rule from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Risk factors for unconstrained cases included hypertension, smoking, family history, and liquor addiction. For the most part, the determination can be controlled by a CT scan of the head if done inside six hours. Occasionally a lumbar cut is also required. After affirmation additionally tests are generally performed to decide the basic reason.
Treatment is by prompt neurosurgery or radiologically guided mediations. Medications, for example, labetalol might be required to bring down the pulse until the point that repair can happen. Efforts to treat fevers are also recommended. Nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, is oftentimes used to anticipate vasospasm. Routine utilize medications to avert encourage seizures is of unclear benefit. Almost 50% of individuals with a SAH because of an underlying aneurysm die within 30 days and about a third who survive have ongoing issues. 10– 15 percent die before reaching a hospital.
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a particularly devastating neurologic insult as the majority of patients suffer mortality and morbidity at the time of rupture, and from subsequent complications. At least one-third of patients die shortly after experiencing a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, and around 60% of survivors develop debilitating neurologic deficits throughout their course of treatment. In many cases, spastic narrowing of large cerebral vessels, termed cerebral vasospasm, has been associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and stroke 4 to 21 days post-hemorrhage. Despite decades of numerous clinical trials and animal research, highly effective pharmacological treatment options for aSAH patients are lacking.

Pharmacological Management Strategies:
The cerebral vasospasm, is assessed radiographically, or clinically is not the appropriate target for drug development. It’s presence in aSAH patients is not consistently associated with cerebral infarctions leading to poor outcomes, and many patients in whom cerebral vasospasm is mild or absent nonetheless suffer long-term disabilities and mortality. Pharmacological therapies that effectively attenuate cerebral vasospasm do not significantly improve long term outcomes, perhaps best exemplified in clinical trials using Eta receptor antagonists. Nimodipine, the only pharmacologic therapy to improve aSAH, does not reliably attenuate cerebral vasospasm. It is evident that more comprehensive understanding of the injury process is needed, into further developing strategies for thrombosis and vasospasm in the microvasculature, spreading cortical depolarization and early brain injury. Efforts to eliminate ambiguities in the use of terms and procedures to assess delayed cerebral ischemia should also enhance progress in this field.

Thursday, October 11, 2018

Risk of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive smokers and antihypertensive treatment: Metanalysis of small-case reports

Smoking is a risk issue for mortality and coronary cardiovascular disease in high blood pressure and in diabetes. The chance for stroke is a smaller amount consistent in high blood pressure and appears to be smaller than that of CHD in diabetes. High blood pressure is a powerful independent contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, on the average conferring a threefold increase in risk at all ages and in each sex. Coronary cardiovascular disease is currently the chief lethal abnormal condition of high blood pressure, occurring at a rate 2 to 3 times higher in hypertensives than in normotensives. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is additionally greatly affected by cigarette smoking. For every ten cigarettes per day there's an progressive increase in cardiovascular mortality in men (18%) and in women (31%).

Antihypertensive drug
Antihypertensives drugs are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy is to prevent the complications of high blood pressure (HighBP), such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Evidence suggests that the risk of stroke can be decrease to 34% by reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg, of ischaemic heart disease by 21%, and reduce the heart failure, likelihood of dementia and mortality from cardiovascular disease. There are many classes of antihypertensive, which lower blood pressure by different means. Among the most important and most widely used drugs are calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, ACE inhibitors, and beta blockers.
Metanalysis of large-scale trials showed combined action of hypertension (H) and smoking (S) as a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and both deaths and non-fatal events .The metanalysis of small-case reports of hypertensive smokers (Blood Pressure-BP- >140/90 mmHg) analyzing the incidence and type of cardiovascular complications  results observed indicated that a higher incidence of cardiac and cerebrovascular events affected hypertensive exposed chronically, current smokers, with a statistical significance, while smokers acutely exposed showed transient but stable increase in heart rate and systolic BP in all studied subjects. The type of pharmacological treatment does not influence the metanalysis results. Acute exposure to smoking increased heart rate and BP, while chronic exposure showed a significantly greater number of cardiovascular complications for S+H similarly to what observed in metanalysis of large-scale trials.

Friday, September 28, 2018

New Antibody Conjugates in Cancer Therapy

Targeting of drugs, radiation and protein toxins to cancer selectively with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been considerable as a topic of interest and an area of continued development. Radioimmunotherapy of lymphoma using directly labeled MAbs is of current interest after approval of two radiolabeled anti-CD20 MAbs, as illustrated with the near 100% overall response rate obtained in a recent clinical trial using an investigational radiolabeled 90Y-epratuzumab ,anti-CD22 MAb. The advantage of pre targeted RAIT over directly labeled MAbs is continuing to be validated in preclinical models of solid tumors and lymphoma. Importantly, the advantages of combining RAIT with radiation sensitizers, with immunotherapy, or a drug conjugate targeting a different antigen are being studied clinically and pre clinically. The area of drug-conjugated antibodies is progressing with encouraging data for the trastuzumab-DM1 conjugate in a phase I clinical trial in HER2-positive breast cancer. The technology of Dock-and-Lock platform has contributed to the design and the evaluation of antibody-toxin conjugates and complex antibody-cytokine.

Radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) involves in the application of radiolabeled MAbs for targeted radiotherapy (RT). Both directly radiolabeled MAbs and in vivo radiolabelings of tumor-targeted MAbs by complexation with radiolabeled haptens have been developed. 
Radionuclides Used for RAIT
Tumoricidal effects produced by continuous low-dose irradiation from a tumor-targeted radiolabeled MAb. For therapy, α- and β-particle emitters are of practical relevance. There have been numerous investigations with a number of these radionuclides, but for use with whole antibodies, the most promising radionuclides are the β-emitters 131I, 90Y, and 177Lu. 90Y is a max-energy β-emitter (Emax: 2,280 keV; max range: 12 mm) with a 64-h half-life, while 131I has a higher half-life of 8.1 days with low-intermediate energy (610 keV, range: 2.0 mm). 131I is quickly removed from tumor cells after intracellular antibody catabolism so it is not suitable for use with internalizing MAbs. The forms of intracellularly trapped 131I have been designed by us and others for use with internalizing MAbs. A recent study of IMP-R4 template utilized for incorporating residualizing radioiodine for immuno-PET quantitation of de2-7 EGFR expression in glioma in a xenograft model using 124I-IMP-R4–labeled anti-EGFR antibody, ch806. Residualizing use of radioiodine method for clinical RAIT may be supplanted by the availability of the metallic radionuclide 177Lu, which has radiophysical properties similar to those of 131I and radiolabeling chemistry similar to that of 90Y.

Friday, September 21, 2018

Current status of recombinant antibodies in cancer therapy

There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and precision medicine.
Antibodies have come a long way from those initial isolated by hybridoma over thirty years past to trendy engineered fragments, made by rational designThe utilization of antibodies in cancer therapy is increasing apace, with eleven antibodies approved over the past decade and quite five hundred in progress clinical trials involving monoclonal antibodies. The mixture of the antibody's inherent characteristics with the growing pool of tumour-specific antigens has generated a large array of antibody-derived tools that area unit specifically designed to suppress and eliminate cancer cells. 

Recombinant antibodies have evolved into successful therapeutics with ten approved for cancer and additional within the pipeline. Four of the highest 10 cancer therapy medicines are recombinant antibodies. Objectives: To survey the present progressive lightness the explanations for this success and looking out ahead to subsequent generation of antibody therapy. Methods: AN analysis was dispensed to spot preclinical and clinical examples and also the underlying ideas and mechanisms that have shown a way to design higher therapies. Results greater understanding of the molecular basis of cancer has led to improved antibodies and a greater choice of targets. Fine standardisation of successful antibodies through modification of glycosylation, affinity, size and different parameters area unit paying dividends. Fc-engineering is probably going to be predominant within the close to future however conjugates, fragments and fusion proteins can still be developed and find their place within the arsenal of antibody therapeutics.

Saturday, August 25, 2018

How to dose cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs

Cytotoxic drugs or cytostatics

Cytotoxic medications or cytostatics are drugs used to pulverize tumor cells. Cytotoxic drugs inhibit cell division and in this way cause cancer cells to die. Cytotoxic medications are transported in the circulatory system all through the body. Cytotoxic medications can be utilized to crush tumors, help the results of medical procedure or radiotherapy, decrease metastases and reduce malignancy indications. Cytostatics can destroy small tumours that have not been detected in tests. Cytotoxic drugs affect all healthy tissue, including those of dividing cells. But since disease cells regularly isolate notably quicker than ordinary cells, they are especially delicate to cytostatics. The consequences for ordinary cells are less pronounced and healthy cells also recover faster.

Cytotoxic chemotherapeutic specialists have vast individual fluctuation and narrow therapeutic windows in pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, dosing of these operators requires exact change. In spite of the fact that the body-surface area (BSA) has for quite some time been utilized for this reason, its adequacy for limiting interpatient fluctuation in pharmacokinetics has been addressed. The components that conceivably add to between singular changeability in medicate reaction are looked into, with an extraordinary spotlight on cytotoxic chemotherapeutic medications, for example, platinum-containing operators, taxanes, irinotecan, and antimetabolites. That the utilization of BSA neglects to limit between tolerant inconstancies in sedate reaction, causes bother in reconstituting singular dosages, and can result in human mistake, introductory level dosing with consequent restorative medication checking may be a sensible alternative.

Side effects of cytotoxic drugs

Cytotoxic medications achieve all cells in the body and they kill healthy cells as well as cancer cells. This is the reason chemotherapy has antagonistic symptoms. Treatment as a rule causes sickness, male pattern baldness and exhaustion. The reactions change starting with one individual then onto the next. A portion of the reactions vanish following a couple of days, however it for the most part takes a couple of months for you to make a general recuperation from chemotherapy. Since cytostatics influence separating cells, a considerable lot of the reactions are focused on inexhaustible tissue, for example, hair, bone marrow and mucous layers. The sort and seriousness of the symptoms rely upon the medications utilized, measurements, your general condition and how our body reacts to the medications. The most well-known reactions would nowadays be able to be viably averted and treated.

Thursday, August 23, 2018


About Conference

ME Conferences is delighted and cordially welcomes you to attend the 12th International Conference on Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Research to be held during March 18-19, 2019 in Dubai, UAE. ME Conferences is an open resource platform that conducts 3000+ international events which includes International Conferences, Workshops, Symposia, Trade Shows, Exhibitions and Scientific Conferences in all major disciplines like Clinical, Medical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology, Business Management and Life Sciences across America, Europe, Middle East, and Asia Pacific. The events are gathering over twenty five million researchers, scholars, students, professionals and industrial personnel throughout the world. World Famous Scientists, Researchers, Academic and business delegates, young scientists and students in their individual fields grace our events as keynote speakers, plenary speakers, poster presenters, and organizing committee members.

Why to Attend???

12th International Conference on Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Research scheduled during March 18-19, 2019 in Dubai, UAE is organised aiming to bring together leading academic professors, scientists, researchers and students to exchange, share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical research . It also provides a premier interdisciplinary pavement for Pharma, Regulatory, Drug Designing and clinical trial industries to represent their technological innovations and discuss the most recent approaches, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Pharmacoepidemiology & Clinical research.

Pharmaceutical research provides a profitable business opportunity to several pharmaceutical and biotech companies as these technologies have wide application areas such as drug discovery and research followed by New drug delivery systems.  Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the utilization and effects of drugs in large numbers of people; it provides an estimate of the probability of beneficial effects of a drug in a population and the probability of adverse effects. It can be called a bridge science spanning both clinical pharmacology and epidemiologyPart of the task of clinical pharmacology is to provide a risk benefit assessment by effects of drugs in patients:

1. Doing the studies needed to provide an estimate of the probability of beneficial effects on populations,

2. Or assessing the probability of adverse effects on populations.

Pharmacoepidemiology concentrates on clinical patient outcomes from therapeutics by using methods of clinical epidemiology and applying them to understanding the determinants of beneficial and adverse drug effects, effects of genetic variation on drug effect, duration-response relationships, clinical effects of drug-drug interactions, and the effects of medication non-adherence. Pharmacovigilance is a part of pharmacoepidemiology that involves continual monitoring, in a population, for unwanted effects and other safety concerns arising in drugs that are already on the market. Pharmacoepidemiology sometimes also involves the conduct and evaluation of programmatic efforts to improve medication use on a population basis. 

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases and other health states in populations. Epidemiological studies can be divided into two main types:

1.   Descriptive epidemiology describes disease and/or exposure and may consist of calculating rates, e.g., incidence and prevalence. Such descriptive studies do not at this time use health control groups and can only generate hypotheses,but not test them. Studies of drug use would generally fall under descriptive studies.

2.   Analytic epidemiology includes two types of studies: observational studies, such as case-control and cohort studies, and experimental studies which include clinical trials or randomized clinical trials. The analytic studies compare an exposed group with a control group and usually designed as hypothesis testing by studies.

Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical research Congress includes a wide range of Keynote presentations, Oral talks, Poster presentations, Symposia, Workshops, Exhibitions and extensive networking and B2B(Business to Business) interactions.

Mark your dates to meet the experts & join the critical discussions at Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Research Congress scheduled during March 18-19, 2019 in Dubai, UAE. Register now to unleash Advanced Clinical research and compliance in the arena of Pharmacoepidemiology.

Who Should Attend??

Directors,Senior Directors,Executive Directors and Vice Presidents and Senior Vice Presidents, Executive Vice Presidents and Heads/Leaders/Partners of:

  • CROs and CMOs
  • Clinical Research Sites
  • Pharma/Biotech and Medical Device industries
  • Hospitals, Associations
  • Medical Advisors
  • Medical Directors, Principal Investigators, Methodologists, and other clinical research professionals along with Academicians. University Faculties like Directors, Senior Professors and Assistant Professors and Associate Professor, Research Scholars, Adepts scientists who are related to clinical and medical research.

Clinical and Pharmaceutical and biotech industry professionals with responsibilities in:

  • Clinical Research & Development 
  • Clinical Design/ Protocol Design/ Clinical Strategy
  • Global Clinical Operations
  • Clinical Outsourcing 
  • Biostatistics/Data management
  • Patient Recruitment/Enrollment 
  • Clinical Trial Management
  • Clinical Trial Supplies
  • Regulatory Affairs

Conference Highlights

Special Issues

  •  All accepted abstracts will be published in respective Supported International Journals.
  •  Abstracts will be provided with Digital Object Identifier by Cross Ref.

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